Munich was the chief city of southern Germany and the birthplace of the Nazi party in 1922. In 1933 it was home to around 9000 Jews, a large portion of whom moved from the city before the war. During the war, about 3000 Jews were deported to Riga, Lublin, Theresianstadt, and other transit camps and killing centers.
Compared to Berlin, Munich has few Holocaust memorials. Perhaps the most impressive of the monuments to the victims of the Nazi era are the White Rose Museum and Memorials at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität. The White Rose was a small group of university students and friends in Munich who distributed anti-Nazi literature. The leaders of the group were Kurt Huber, Christoph Probst, Sophie Scholl, and her brother Hans.