The Netherlands

More than half of the approximately 140,000 Jews in the Netherlands when the Germans invaded in May 1940 were residents of Amsterdam. Though the Dutch underground resistance included noteworthy efforts to rescue Jews, fewer than 25% of Dutch Jews survived the war.

The best-known of Amsterdam’s several Holocaust sites is the house that included the secret hideout of Anne Frank and her family from July 1942 until August 1944. Among the other small memorials around the city, are the Ravensbrück memorial—from which low rumbling sounds emanate—the memorial to the Roma and Sinti victims of the Nazis, and the “No More Auschwitz” memorial made of cracked reflective glass panels set in the ground.